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All of these terms can be used to describe the same process, with vacuum metalizing being a more specific case. Within the confines of a chamber which has had most of the air removed, metals or other materials are heated until they vaporize. This vapor travels about the chamber and condenses on surfaces within the chamber, forming a thin film.
Two reasons - to lower the boiling point of the material to be deposited and to allow the subsequent vapor to travel about the chamber without interference from air molecules.
A sputtering target is a material that is used to create thin films in a technique known as sputter deposition, or thin film deposition. During this process the sputtering target material, which begins as a solid, is broken up by gaseous ions into tiny particles that form a spray and coat another material, which is known as the substrate. Sputter deposition is commonly involved in the creation of semiconductors and computer chips. As a result, most sputtering target materials are metallic elements or alloys, although there are some ceramic targets available that create hardened thin coatings for various tools.
Magnetron sputtering is one of the most frequently applied tools for the deposition of high quality functional coatings. For high-rate deposition, sputtering of compound films is often performed in the "reactive" mode, where a metal target is exposed to a discharge in a rare gas with some fraction of reactive gas (such as oxygen or nitrogen) added. The performance of reactive sputtering is, however, impeded by the effect of target "poisoning", which means that a compound film is not only formed on the substrate as desired, but also on the sputter target, which results in a significantly reduced sputter yield and, thereby, reduced deposition rate. A further consequence of poisoning is a hysteresis of the reactive gas partial pressure at increasing/decreasing reactive gas flow, and, associated to this, an unstable operation regime between high and low target uptake at constant partial flow of the reactive gas, which often requires additional means of stabilization in practical applications.