The four main forming methods of ITO target materials are mainly about their definitions and characteristics. Today I think it is necessary to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of each method, which will help you to choose between them when preparing ITO targets.
ITO target preparation method hot pressing
Hot pressing is a process in which pressing and thermal sintering are carried out simultaneously. The advantages of this process are:
(1) During the hot pressing process, since the powder is in a thermoplastic state, the deformation resistance is small, plastic flow and densification are easy, so the required molding pressure is small.
(2) Simultaneous heating and pressurization facilitates the contact, diffusion and flow between powder particles, reduces the sintering temperature and shortens the sintering time, and inhibits the growth of crystal grains.
(3) The hot pressing method is easy to obtain a sintered body with a density close to the theoretical density and a porosity close to zero, and it is easy to obtain a fine-grained structure.
The main disadvantages of this method are:
(1) Due to the limitation of hot pressing equipment and mold size, the target size obtained is smaller. The maximum size of the current target is 400×300mm.
(2) This method has higher requirements for mold materials (generally high-purity and high-strength graphite). Moreover, the hot pressing equipment needs to be imported, which is not suitable for industrialized continuous production. The production efficiency is low and the cost is high.
(3) The uniformity of target grains is poor.
ITO target preparation method hot isostatic pressing
Hot isostatic pressing is the most commonly used method for preparing ITO sputtering targets. It has the following advantages:
(1) It can overcome the shortcomings of hot pressing in graphite molds.
(2) In the heating and pressurizing state, the product is pressurized in all directions at the same time, so that the resulting product has a very high density (close to the theoretical density).
(3) Hot isostatic pressing strengthens the pressing and sintering process, reduces the sintering temperature, thus avoids the growth of crystal grains, and makes the product obtain excellent physical and mechanical properties.
The main disadvantages of this method are:
(1) The size of the target material is limited by the pressure of the equipment and the size of the cylinder, and it is difficult to prepare a large-size target material.
(2) The equipment is expensive and the investment cost is high.
(3) Low production efficiency and high production cost make the product uncompetitive.
ITO target preparation method room temperature sintering
The main advantages of the room temperature sintering method are:
(1) The size of the target material is not limited by the equipment, and large-size targets can be produced.
(2) The equipment investment is small, the production cost is low, the production efficiency is high, the target material performance is excellent, and the industrial production is easy.
(3) This method is suitable for the performance requirements of high-end display coating targets.
Its disadvantages are:
(1) Compared with other methods, this method is the most difficult to sinter. In order to obtain a dense sintered body, it is usually necessary to add a sintering aid. However, the sintering aid is difficult to remove from the sintered body, thereby reducing the purity of the product.
(2) There are strict requirements on the shape, particle size and particle size distribution of the powder. In order to meet the requirements, the powder is generally subjected to ball milling, jet milling and sedimentation classification.
(3) The target material produced is generally thin.
ITO target preparation method cold isostatic pressing
The advantages of preparing ITO targets by cold isostatic pressing are:
(1) Compared with mechanical pressing, because of the large pressure of cold isostatic pressing, the workpiece is evenly stressed, which is especially suitable for pressing large-size powder products.
(2) The compressed powder product has the advantages of high density and uniformity.
(3) The pressed powder does not need to add lubricants, etc.
(4) Low production cost, suitable for mass production.
However, the use of hyperbaric oxygen makes this process dangerous.
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